X-RAYS AND X-RAY PROCEDURES

As Germany, a physicist named Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was conductingexperiments with electron beam in a discharge tube gas. Suddenly he observed the event berpendarnya a fluorescent screen of hers who happened to be near a gas discharge tube that when an electron beam ignited. Under normal circumstances, the blue fluorescent screen events is not something strange, considering the fluorescence material is a material would indeed be glowed as a reaction to an electromagnetic waves. But, in the event that experienced theRöntgen, he actually had covered its gaseous discharge tube with a carton thickenough and given the color black. The assumption, with carton thick blackradiation eletromagnet can not come out due to blocked by thick cardboard.

Röntgen tried to put any objects between the screen with fluorescent tubes. The result is a screen still glowed. The most shocking, Röntgen asked his wife put her hand in between the tube and the screen, and the result was a shadowsilhouette of the bones of his hand, complete with a circular ring on the ring finger. Röntgen. Such was the origin of the discovery of a type of x-ray, which he called Röntgen with x-rays, which has significance in the world of medicine.

X-rays, discovered it accidentally, used to do photo Röntgen at the hospital.With that, the doctor can see pierce the flesh of patients to check for a brokenbone or part is cracked, or objects that may be of concern in the patient's throat, with remarkable ease.


X-rays on the fact that "brothers" with visible light. Namely light cause we can see around us. They are part of the electromagnetic spectrum and we know thatelectromagnetic waves consists of packets of energy called photons. the difference between the x-rays with visible light is located on the energy of photons that composed it, and the energy of a photon is related to thewavelength. The x-ray photon energy larger than the energy of a photon ofvisible light. Because the energy of a photon is inversely proportional to its wavelength, then it could be said that the wavelength of the x-ray photonsshorter wavelength photons of visible light. Too bad our eyes are only able tocapture certain wavelengths which incidentally the wavelength of visible light byso that we are not able to see the x-ray it.

Both x-ray photons or photons of visible light, both produced by the transfer ofelectrons in atoms. We know that electrons occupy specific energy levels, whichwe call orbital around the atomic nucleus. If an electron falls into a lower energy level, then the electron must issue specific amounts of energy, and this energy is released in the form of photons. Of the energy of photons that regardless how deep depends on the intended orbit the electron.
bagaimana atom tereksitasi

At a time when a photon collides with other atoms, the atoms will absorb the energy of photons pounded the menumbuknya and trigger an electron in the atom to move into a higher orbit. One condition that must be met for it, i.e. the energy of photons that mashing atoms must be equal to the difference betweenthe two electron orbits. If not so, photons are not able to shift electrons thatatom.

The atoms of the skin of our body absorbs a photon of visible light very well.The energy possessed by a photon of visible light in sync with the gap betweenenergy levels of atoms constituent of our skin. For other types ofelectromagnetic waves, e.g. radio waves of energy that are owned by the photon-fotonnya is not sufficient to be able to make the electrons of the atomsof the body switch to a higher energy level. That is why the radio waves will penetrate almost any material. X-rays are also able to penetrate much of the material (material), but not because he has less energy, but energy is owned bythe photon-fotonnya thus very large. X-ray photon energies even can cause theelectrons of the atom was thrown out of the atom. Some of the energy of the x-ray photons can separate the electron from the atom, and the remainingelectrons hovering in the air. The larger atoms more easily absorb the photon x-rays, because larger atoms have a difference in the energy levels of the largeranyway. While the atoms are smaller, where the difference between the energylevels of electrons (orbit) is small, it is more difficult to absorb x-rays; that meansmore easily penetrated x-rays.

Our soft skin layer is composed of atoms are small, so it can not absorb x-rays x-ray or forwarding properly. The atoms of calcium which is a constituent of an atom of a bone we have a much larger atoms so that the atoms absorb x-rays so that bone penetrated hard x-rays. To use x-rays to do x-rays in medicine,necessary tools transmitter x-rays. How is this x-ray transmitter work?


cara kerja mesin sinar-X untuk foto Rontgen

The main part of the x-ray machine is a pair of electrodes, i.e. the cathode and the anode, which is placed in a glass tube divakumkan. Cathode made from aheated filament, as commonly found on old models of incandescent bulbs. An electric current on the machine transmitter x-rays is passed through a filamentthat becomes hot filament. As a result, the electrons emitted from the surface ofthe filament. The positively charged Anode, made from tungsten circular flat, theattract electrons to form a beam of electrons from the cathode to the anode in the tubes.

Between cathode and anode are given a very large potential difference, so that a beam of electrons flowing in the tubes with a very high energy. When high-energy electrons is mashing in anode tungsten atom, an electron which is at a relatively low orbit of the tungsten atoms would have catapulted left the place.Other electrons are in a higher orbit would soon fall fill empty places in the lower orbitals that have abandoned the electron. Because of the orbitalelectrons falling from a higher to a lower orbital, then in this process will be released photons. in this event, the fall of electrons comes from energy levelsare much higher, so the resulting photon is also a photon with sufficient energyis high, i.e. a photon-photon x-rays.

mekanisme atom memancarkan foton

The free electrons can also generate photons without mashing an atom. This happens because a nucleus that attracts electrons that move freely will causeelectrons to move will be experiencing a slowdown. A slowdown or reduction inspeed occurs in a manner that fairly quickly. This will result in a change of pacehe gave up energy in the form of x-ray photons.

A very powerful collision events in the process of formation of the x-rays will generate heat. To avoid the onset of melting at the anode due to the heat, onthe machine transmitter is the x-ray, there is a motor that is rotating anode.Thus, the electron beam does not always equal parts mashing the anode. In addition there are also in the engine oil cooler that serves to absorb heat.

All around tool this x-ray generator, fitted a thick barrier of lead. This is to keep the x-rays not out radiating in all directions. To transmit x-ray beam is produced,created a small hole in the section of the barrier layer. Before the x-rays of the patient's body that will be photographed, this x-ray will pass through a number of filters (filters) according to your needs.

A camera on the other side of the patient will record the pattern of x-rays that pass through the patient's body. X-ray camera uses film technology similar to that of a regular film camera (non-digital cameras). The difference is a chemical reaction in the movie photos are caused by x-rays rather than visible light rayssuch as on regular film cameras.

Doctors generally use directly the results of x-rays in the form of a film negative.You've seen the film negative and how it works doesn't it? We call the negativefilm with the term cliche photo. On these negative film, the part that is exposed to light will looks more black than with fewer parts are light. Hard objects, such as the bones, it will look white in the film while the objects are softer skin, for example, would appear to be black or grey.

does the x ray is dangerous to the body?
X-ray is an important device in the medical world because it allows a doctor a patient without having to membedahnya. It would be much easier and safer to check a bone by using x-ray rather than the dissecting of the skin and the meatto check out of the bones.

However, excessive x-rays will harm our bodies. x-ray radiation is one type ofionization radiation, i.e. radiation that can cause an atom undergoes ionization.If a normal light of the atom, the light cannot change the atom dikenainyasignificantly. Another case if x-rays being about an atom. If x-ray electroncollides with an atom, the atom can be thrown out leaving the atom formingions, i.e. electrically charged atoms. The electrons which catapulted to becomefree and able to pound other atoms so as to produce more ions again.

This electrically charged ions can produce unusual chemical reactions in the cell. even can damage our DNA chains. cells experience DNA damage will experience a death or suffer. More and more of the DNA of the dead, the body will causemany types of illnesses. If DNA mutates, cells can undergo cancer, and this cancer can spread. So even though x-rays is very mean in the medical world, youhave to be careful not to do too often Röntgen!

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