P-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR

Extrinsic semiconductor material which we have discussed earlier have beenoffensive about extrinsic semiconductor type N and type P. On this occasion we will discuss about the P type semiconductor. Before continuing your readingactivities, help us to click the image on the side.

When a small amount of impurities trivalen added on pure semiconductor, it is called a p-type semiconductor. Addition of impurities trivalen provides a large number of holes in a semiconductor it. A typical example of trivalen impurities isgallium and indium. The impurities will produce a p type semiconductor known as ekseptor due to impurities resulting hole can enerima electrons. To explainthe formation of p-type semiconductor, think of a pure germanium crystals.When a small amount of impurities such as trivalen gallium germanium crystalsadded on, then we will see a number of holes in the Crystal.

The reason is simple. Gallium is a trivalen even have three valence electrons. Each galliumatom settled in Crystal germanium has only three electrons in a covalent bondcan be formed. Because the three valence electrons gallium atoms can only beformed three Covalent bonds with germanium atom. In Covalent bonds to fourgermanium atom that donates only one valence electrons whereas etom galliumdoes not have valence electrons to donate like three valence electrons that have been invited to work together in Covalent bonds with the neighboringatomatom germanium. 



In other words the bonds to four incomplete due to lackone electron. The loss of electrons is called the hole (hole). Therefore, for everyatom of gallium is added, one hole will be created. A small amount of galliumwill provide millions of holes.

P type semiconductor explanation based on the concept of energy bands is as follows. The addition of impurities trivalen has produced a number of holes. Butthere is little electrons in conduction bands associated with the thermal energyin the room temperature. But the holes are much greater than the electron inconduction bands. Related to an excess of holes against the free electrons thenthe material was called the p-type semiconductor (p means positive).


P-type conductivity. Conduction current in the semiconductor type p mainly because the positively charged holes so referred to as the pit or typeconductivity type p. To understand the conductivity type p, then consider the following picture. When a potential difference is imposed on the p-typesemiconductor (hole donated impurities) will be shifted from the covalent bondof one to the other. Because the positively charged hole, then he will be directedtowards the negative terminal and will cause as it has been known as the flowhole. Need dicacat on conductivity type p that valence electrons moving from one covalent bond to the other is not like on the type n in which the conductioncurrent is caused by free electrons.

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