Impact Of El-Nino in Indonesia

What is Elnino???
El Nino is a symptom of the marked discrepancy between the sea conditionswith rising sea surface temperatures (SST sea surface temperature-) in the Pacific Ocean around the equator (equatorial pacific) especially in the Central and eastern part (around the coast of Peru). Before continuing your readingactivities, help us to click the image on the side. Because of the oceans andatmosphere are two interconnected system, then this sea conditions lapses led to deviations in the atmospheric conditions that ultimately result in the occurrence of climate deviations.

In normal climatic conditions, the surface temperature of the sea aroundIndonesia (western part of the Pacific equator) are generally warm and thereforethe process of evaporation is easy going and easy rain clouds formed. But whenel-nino phenomenon occurs, when the sea surface temperatures in the Pacific,Central and Eastern parts of the equator warms up, thus the waters aroundIndonesia generally experience a drop in temperature (deviate from normal). As a result, changes in the circulation of air time which resulted in a decreasedformation of rain clouds in Indonesia.

The el-nino phenomenon observed by analyzing atmospheric data and marineweather buoy recorded through a data recording device of the atmosphere and oceans that works automatically and placed in the ocean. In the Pacific Ocean, at least currently installed more than 50 pieces that buoy was installed byatmospheric and Marine Research Institute (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-NOAA) since the 1980s with tools that we get sea surface temperature data so that it can conduct monitoring against the emergence ofthe phenomenon of el nino.

The phenomenon of el nino are not events that occur unexpectedly. The process of changing the temperature of the sea permukaaan which is usually cold thenwarms up could take in a matter of weeks to months. Because of that sea surface temperature observations can also be useful in making predictions orforecasts of impending el nino, as we are able to analyze temperature changesthe face of the sea from time to time. In BMKG, monitoring the phenomenon elnino is also done by utilizing data from the buoy-buoy. This monitoring is doneby making a map of the development of the spatial distribution of both oceantemperatures (latitude-longitude) as well as vertical slices, namely seatemperature maps for several levels of depth. This analysis of the products is available on the web official BMKG.

Impact Of El-Nino
Climate forecast Center America (Climate Prediction Center) noted that since 1950, there have been at least 22 times the phenomenon of el nino events, 6 of which are underway with powerful intensity i.e. 1957/1958, 1965/1966, 1972/1973, 1982/1983, 1987/1988 and 1997/1998. The intensity of the el-ninonumerically determined based on the magnitude of the deviation of thetemperature of the sea surface in the Pacific equator. If it warms up more than1.5 ° c, then the el-nino categorized strong.

Most of the events el-nino that, begin to take place at the end of the wet seasonor early to mid summer is the month of may, June and July. El nino in 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 is two events el-nino greatest that ever happened in the modern era with an impact that is felt globally. Called the global impact because its influence hit many in the world. America and Europe for example, experience increased rainfall so trigger a huge flood, while Indonesia, India, Australia, Africaexperienced a reduction in rainfall which caused the long drought.

In Indonesia, it is still clear in our minds, in 1997 an extensive drought disasters.In that year, the case of forest fires in Indonesia into international attentionbecause the smoke is spreading to neighboring countries. Forest fires that hitmany areas in Sumatra and Kalimantan by that time, it is not caused by the el-nino phenomenon directly. But the condition of the air dry and the lack of rainfall has made the fire blazing and become easily propagate and are alsodifficult to control. On the other hand, dryness and drought also caused many regions agriculture centers experienced a failed harvest due to the distribution of precipitation that does not meet the needs of the plant.

Scientific publications shows that the impact of the el nino effect on climate inIndonesia will be strong if it occurs simultaneously with the dry season, and will be reduced (or even not felt) if it occurs simultaneously with the rainy season.The impact of el nino is also apparently vary between one place with other places, depending on the characteristics of the local climate. Therefore, itbecomes interesting for climate analysts to pay attention to the distribution ofthe impacts of the el-nino from month to month (especially in summer) and from one location to another, based on records of Gen. el-nino in the past. This kind of analysis can be used as reference in drafting related policies impactelnino, for example in the policy of food security.

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