There is no doubt that photography is one of the important findings in the history of our lives. Photography has changed how we memersepsi of this world.We can "see" a series of events that actually thousands of miles away from us,many years since it happens at a time when we are now. With our photographycan capture a specific moment and mengabadikannya until the next few years.

The underlying technology of photography is actually relatively simple. Acamera that consists of three basic components: optical elements (lenses), the chemical element (film), and the mechanical elements (camera body), which became his main instrument. How does this camera?

There are many types of cameras used in photography. In this article we will take an example of the type of the camera manual single-lens-reflex (SLR). This is the type of the camera where the photographer will see immediate figureshadow object that will be photographed with the same shadows that formed on the film (we often call it a cliché) and can be set by using a number of controlknobs. Because the electricity is not needed in the image capture using this camera, then a manual SLR cameras can provide an interesting illustration of the fundamental processes of photography.

The optical components of a camera is a lens. In its simplest form, a lens is not another pieces of glass or plastic dicembungkan. The function of the lens iscapturing the beam of light reflected by an object and directs the beam of lightforming a shadow real – exactly the same image with the object that is in front of the lens.

How a glass or plastic made concave or convex can do such a thing?

You know, the process is very simple.

When light travels from a medium to another medium, then the speed of lightwill change. The speed of light will be greater if the light travels in the air thanwhen moving around in the glass. Thus, a lens causes light speed slows down.

When a light wave entering a piece of glass with a certain angle, one part of thewave will reach the glass first compared to the other sections. As a result, thefirst entered the glass will experience a slowdown prior section. An event likethis will also occur when we are pushing a shopping cart from the floorpavement ground to the top of the grassy land. If we push the trolley enters thegrassy area from the direction of a certain angle against the limit surfacepavement and grass like in the picture below, then we will see that the wheel to the right will first touched the grass. The speed of the wheels on the grass will slow down a little bit compared to the speed of the wheels to the left that are still on the floor pavement. Because the wheel to the left, which is still above thepavement move faster, then the cart you will veer to the right.

The same thing happened on a light wave that travels from air into the lens.When the light gets to the lens with a certain angle, then the trajectory of thelight would be bent to a certain direction. The trajectory of the light will come back on after turning out of the lens because the light that enters the air willmove faster as compared to other parts of the light. In a converging lens orlenses are convex, one or both sides of the glass lenses are made thinner thanthe core. This means the light move past this section will veer toward the center of the lens. On a double convex lens, as the lens used for magnifying glass,curved light will either at the time of entering into the lens as well as at the time of leaving the lens.

This will cause changes in the trajectory of light coming from an object. A light source – for example – candles emit light in all directions. All rays leaving fromthe same point – IE of flash point candles – and will spread constantly. A convexlens can capture files this light and directs it so that the light beam convergingto a point back. At the point where the light converges, we'll get the realshadow of a candle.

What are the factors which determine the formation of a real shadow like this?

We have seen that a shadow real formed by light moving through a convex lens.The nature of the real shadow varies depending on how light travels through the lens. The path of light is dependent on two main factors, namely:

-Angle beam of light into the lens
-The structure of the lens

Angle of light entering the lens will change if we move the object closer orfurther away from the lens. It can be seen in the following figure.

the effect of a shadow object if the lens is moved away from or close to objects
Beam of light that comes from the points of the pencil will enter the lens with ataper angle if the pencil closer to the lens and the light will enter the lens withthe more obtuse angle if the pencil is driven away from the lens. But in General,the lens will only deflect the beam of light to achieve a degree of bending of the total, without relying on how the light enters into the lens. As a result, the incoming beam of light with a more acute angle will be out at an angle that was more blunt, and vice versa. The total angle bending at any given point on the lens remain unchanged.

As we can see, rays from a point that is closer to the lens will converge even further from the lens compared to the beam of light from a more distant point.In other words, the real shadow an object closer formed farther from the lenscompared to the real shadow of a more distant object.

We can observe this phenomenon with a simple experiment. Light a candle in a dark room, place a magnifying glass in between the wax walls. Then we will see a shadow of the candles turned upside down on the wall. If the shadow of realcandles are not exactly fall on wall, then shadow candle will look rather a blur(blur). This happens because the beam of light that comes from a certain point of convergence is not quite at that point. To focus the shadow, we must shift themagnifying glass is approaching or receding from the candle.

penempatan posisi lensa yang tepat untuk menghasilkan bayangan fokus

This is the fact that you did when you distort the camera lens to get the shadowto your focus lens or film surface away from approaching. By the time we move the lens, we are aligning the real shadow of an object is focused so squarely falls on the surface of the film.

Well, we already know that at any point, a lens will deflect the beam of light toachieve a certain degree of curving, without relying on the light beam angle."The bending angle of the" total is determined by the structure of the lens.

The Camera Lens
A lens that has a curving angle round berentuk sharper. Basically, by reducing the convexity of the lens will increase the distance between different points on the lens. This led to the expansion of the light beam so that it takes a beam of light will move more quickly than with other rays, which in turn will generate agilirannnya is more snappy.

The increase of the bending angle has an obvious effect. Beam of light from agiven point will be converging on a point that is closer to the lens. On a more flat shape lenses, beam of light will not be banked in sharply. As a result, the light beam will be converging at a greater distance from the lens. In other words, the real shadow focused will be formed at a greater distance from the lens if the lens is a lens with a slightly flatter surface.

Increase the distance between the lens and the real shadow actually increases the total size of the real shadow. If you have the same mind with this, it makes sense. Suppose a projector: a projector if you move away from the screen, thenshadows formed will become larger. Simply put, the rays remain spread at the time of the move away from the screen.

The same applies in the event of a camera. At a time when the distance betweenthe lens and the shadow of the real gain, beam of light will be more spread out, forming a real shadow. But the size of the film remains constant. If you put a lens which is very flat, then the camera is projecting a real shadow is great but only the central part of the shadow that would be caught on film.
Professional cameras allow us to paste a range of lens so we can see the objectwith a wide range of magnification. The power of magnification or power zoomlens with a focal length of term stated. On camera, the focal length is defined asthe distance between the lens with a real shadow objects at long distances (e.g.the Moon). The larger focal length means that the greater the abilityperbesarannya.

Variations of the lens is also adapted to the different situations. If you're takinga picture of a mountain, you may want to use a remote photo lens (telephotolenses), a lens that has a focal length of. This lens allows you to position zero incertain objects that are at a distance, so you can produce a more compactcomposition. If you're taking a close-up portrait, you may want to use a wide angle lens. These types of lenses have a focal length that is much shorter, sothese lenses will minimize the view in front of you. Whole face will be caught inthe film even though the subject is only one foot away from the camera. Astandard camera lens with a focal length of 50 mm significantly did not zoom in or out of the shadow, so the lens type is ideal for aiming for objects that are nottoo far or too close.

A number of lens in a lens
A camera lens actually combines several lenses into a single unit. A singleconvergent lens can produce a real shadow on the film, but this shadow canlook reams because a number of aberrations.

One of the most influential factors towards the buildup of such images is a different light color will have a slew of different as it passes through a lens.Chromatic aberration is in fact generate a shadow where the colours is notarranged properly.

To reduce this, the camera uses a lens made from a variety of materials. Eachlens to handle different colors, and when you combine it with a specific technique, the colors are formed will undergo rearrangement.

Cameras: Taping Light
The chemical components of a traditional camera film. Basically, when you direct a film to a real shadow, then the film will record the patterns of light.

A recording of the film in the form of a large collection of grain-grain which islight sensitive, that spread in the form of chemical suspension on a plastic strip.At a time when exposed to light, a grain-grain suffered chemical reactions.

At the time of a roll of film has been completed, then processed film lying around (we call it "washed") – film presented on other chemicals that react withgrain-grain light sensitive. On black and white film, chemicals wash will darken the grain-grain that is exposed to light. This process will result in a negative,which areas glow will appear darker and darker areas appear brighter, which will then be transformed into a positive image at the time of printing.

The color film has three different layers, each of which is made of a material that is light sensitive. Each of these layers will respond to different color, i.e. red, green, and blue. By the time the film is washed, the third layer of this being on chemicals that will give the colors on the layers of the film. At the moment we are combining the color information of a third layer, then it will be obtained anegative film full color. To know in detail how the process of washing, you canread the writing workings of film photography.

So far, we have discussed about the basic idea of photography. The basic idea isin fact includes the following processes: capturing the real shadow an object by using the lens is convex (converging lenses) then record the real shadow light patterns on a layer of light sensitive material that we call film (cliche).Conceptually, this is what happens when we photographed an object with a camera. But in order to capture the picture clearly, you must carefully controlhow the above process runs.

Of course, if you spread a sheet of film on the floor and focusing the realshadow an object on top of the film using a convex lens, then you will not generate any image you expect. In these conditions, any grain-grain light sensitive film will be exposed to the light of the overall, and in the absence ofcontrast in areas outside the shadow of the real, the image will not be formed.

To be able to produce a portrait, then the film must be preserved in order to remain in the dark. So we wanted to do a photo shoot, that's where it's time we let the light enter about the film. The task of the Agency kameralah that keep the film remain in a State of darkness. On the camera body, there is a shutterthat closes or opens a path of light between the lens and the film. Actually, the term camera comes from the abbreviation of the word and the camera obscura, which is a Latin word which means "dark room".

So that the resulting image is good, we have to control with a good number ofincoming light on film. If the amount of light that enters it too much, it will betoo much grain films that will react, and the resulting image will be vague. If the incoming light on film too little, then only a few grains of film that reacts, andthe resulting image will be too dark. So the amount of light hitting the filmcorresponds to the amount that should have been in order to produce good images, there is a mechanism on the camera that allows us to set the lighting.

There are two major factors that should be considered in order to generate the appropriate level of the movie shines.

-How much of the light passing through the lens
-How long is the movie the irradiated light

To increase or decrease the amount of light passing through the lens, you have to change your camera's aperture size. Aperture also called aperture. Part of a functioning camera set the aperture is called with the iris diaphragm. The diaphragm is composed of a series of mutually penetrating metal plates that can be folded or open each other mutually to each other. In principle, thisdiaphragm works like a slice of our eyes – that open and close in a circular, to minimize or expand the diameter of the lens. At a time when the lens is smaller, then the amount of light that is captured is smaller, and the larger the lens, the more light that was caught.

Diafragma iris sebuah kamera

Long exposure to light is determined by the shutter speed. Generally use ashutter SLR camera focal areas. Shutter mechanism is very simple – essentiallyshutter focal field consists of two "curtains" located between the lens and the film. Before we take a picture (cite), screen ("curtains") first closed, thus coatingfilm protected from light. At the time the picture was taken, this screen thenopen. After a certain time interval, the second screen moves in from the other side to stop shines.

When you click the button in the first screen of the camera, the shutter opens, causing the film to be exposed to light. After a certain time interval, the secondshutter closes, the screen end shines. The lag time between the open and closecurtains arranged by speed camera shutter button.

An ideal light exposure depends on the size of light sensitive chip contained in the film. The larger the size of the grain of the more photons of light that can beabsorbed than with a smaller grain size. grain size is imaged on film speed, which is printed on the container movie. The different film speeds adapted to the type of photographic. For example ISO 100 films with suitable at shooting inbright sunlight conditions, whereas the film with ISO 1600 is suitable on light conditions are relatively less.

Well, you have seen there are a few things that affect the exposure of light to produce a good photography: you have to balance the film speed, the size ofthe aperture, and shutter speed and lighting levels must be adjusted with the photo shoot. Manual SLR camera has a built-in light meter helps us to arrange things so that the above obtained good photography. The main component of the light meter is a light sensor panel made of semiconductor material that hasa sensitivity to light. This sensor States light energy into electrical energy, whichwill then be interpreted by the meter reader system based upon the film speedand shutter speed.

There are two kinds of film cameras in the market i.e. SLR cameras and cameras"point-and-shott". The second main difference types of this camera lies in howphotographers see the object that will be difotonya on the camera. On cameras"point-and-shoot", the viewfinder (a sharp object) is a simple window throughthe camera body. We can't see the real shadow formed by the lens of the camera, but we do have a rough picture of what is seen.

On a SLR camera, you see real shadows that actually like what would appear inthe film. If you release the lens of an SLR camera, and looking into the camera,you will see how this happens. The camera has a mirror tilted and placed between the shutter and lenses, with a light and a translucent glass Prism on it.This arrangement works like a periscope,--a shadow of the real illusion of mirrorunder the direction of the opaque glass, which acts as a projection screen. The function of Prism is to rotate the shadow in the mirror so it looks straight backand then directed to the window viewpoint.

By the time you hit the shutter button, the camera quickly position the mirror so that the shadow is directed at the movies that are exposed to light. The mirror is linked with the system timer shutter, so that it will remain in a State of open as long as the shutter is open. That's why the Windows blacked out with a point of view very soon when we will take a picture.

On the type of camera, mirrors and translucent screens set up to display the exact same real shadows with a shadow on the film. The advantage of this design is that we can adjust the focus and set the view to get the image exactlyas desired. That's why professional photographers usually use the SLR camera.

Nowadays, the SLR camera made in the form of a SLR camera with automatic setting or with a manual setting, and almost all of the cameras "point-and-shoot" is created automatically. Conceptually, the camera automatically worksthe same way with the camera model manual, except that on the cameraautomatically everything is controlled by a microprocessor, not controlled by the user. The microprocessor receives information from system autofocus andshutter, then enable some small motors, which is in charge of arranging the lens,as well as open-close the opening (aperture).

Manually and simple, we could make himself a tool that serves as a camera.Could try.

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