The Classification of Materials

Intellectual greetings. Talking about Chemistry, of course, we need to know that in this world no such thing as material. Now for more details, please read and understand the following explanation:

Material is something that has mass and volume. A filler material universe, including the world yan and objects in it. In chemistry, material smua are chemicals including humans and other living things. So, yan mean by chemicals is not the chemicals that are in the chemical laboratory, but all the objects that are around us both life-style and non-living, including house, land, air, water, animals, plants, and body we ourselves are chemicals.

A. Classification of material
Under the arrangement, the material can be distinguished as single substances and mixtures.
Single substance is only  constituent material of one kind. A single substance can ibedakan into two, namely the elements and compounds.

The element is a single substance yan material constituent consists of one type of atom for example: sulfur powder constituent is an iron atom-atom of sulfur which is denoted by S (sulfur), copper wire constituent atoms of copper are denoted by Cu (cuprum), stem BSI constituent atoms of iron Fe (ferum) and other other

The compound is a single substance which  material composed of molecules.
Molecule is a combination of a few atoms with a certain amount and a certain bond anyway. There are two kinds of molecules, the molecules of the element if its constituent atoms and molecules similar jiak compound constituent atoms are not similar. Examples of molecules of elements: chemical formula H2 gas Hidroen.
Constituent material is two hydrogen atoms bonded with the symbol H to form molecular hydrogen gas. Other examples of oxygen gas (O2), Nitrogen gas (N2), Gas Chlorine (Cl 2), and others.
Examples of molecular compounds: water kiamianya formula H2O. Tersiri constituent material of two hydrogen atoms (H) and one atom of oxygen (O) relating to form water.
Mix is ​​a constituent material consisting of many types. The mixture can be divided into three, namely:
1. The mixture was homogeneous: It is a solution, which is mixed in all parts having the same composition so it looks like a single substance. For example, drink syrup is a sugar water mixture (sugar solution) dyes and flavorings or aromas. tea water, a solution of Aramaic, the air is a gas mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, and other gases

2. The heterogeneous mixture: mix in all parts have komposisis unequal. in this heterogeneous mixture, usually the phase difference of each formulation can be seen clearly for example ice mix, like fried noodles, meatball soup, vegetable soup, and others.

3. Kaloit
Kaloit is the boundary between homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures, such as emulsions, suspensions, and others.
     The introduction of the composition of matter and the origin will greatly assist in the choice of methods or means that can be used to separate, purify, or analyze the constituents of the material.

B. Separation of mixture
The mixture may be separated by several methods, namely:
1. sifting, used for separating solids from solids other.
2. magnetic separation is used to separate substances that are magnetic to non-magnetic substance
3. Filtering, is used to separate solids and liquids in the mix.
4. Centrifugation is used to separate the solids are small enough and spread evenly in the liquid.
5. Evaporation, is used to separate solids from liquids in solution.
6. Chromatography, used to separate some of the constituent substances mixture.
7. separating funnel, used to separate liquids that do not mix with each other.
8. Distillates, used for separating mixtures of liquids with different boiling points far.

C. Change material
     Material changes from one form to another, or a substance is transformed into another substance which previously had different properties of matter at all to the nature of the new substances. Based on the properties of these changes, the changes Matri can be classified into two physical changes and chemical changes.

Physical changes are changes in the formation of substances that are not accompanied by a new substance. In a change of physics, chemical properties of the substance is still the same, what happens is a change in the form of these substances, for example solid to liquid, from liquid to gas, or vice versa.
Chemical changes are accompanied by changes in substance terentuknya new substance. This new Zzat have the nature of the chemical and physical properties that are different from asalnnya substances. In a chemical change, a substance that has been transformed into other substances can not be transformed into its original substance. So, it sifanya permanent chemical change. The characteristics of chemical changes include:
1. There is a change of color
2. There was a change in temperature
3. Formed gas / odor
4. Formed precipitate

for example, if the wood is burned, it actually happens is the wood reacts with oxygen in the air, and into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) and produce heat. Carbon dioxide gas and water vapor combustion products wood can not be turned into wood and oxygen gas again.

Furthermore, chemical changes are more often called a chemical reaction. In nature, examples of chemical changes more than physical changes. The material can be distinguished by the nature of the physical and chemical properties. physical properties of a substance based on the change of the substance physics, while based on the chemical properties of the chemical properties of the substance.


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