THE ETHER: GENERAL FORMULAS, NOMENCLATURE, PROPERTIES, PRODUCTION AND USES OF ETHER

Ether here will be limited his discussion includes understanding the generalformula ether, ether, ether nomenclature, properties of ether, ether, and the usefulness of ether. Ether is the functional group isomers of alcohol, so when discussing the ether often dihubung  connect with alcohol.

Ether is a compound of carbon derivatives of alkanes which have functional groups  OR ' (acyloxy). Ether known as acyloxy alkanes.

THE GENERAL FORMULA OF ALKANES

Ether (acyloxy alkanes) are derived from the substitution of one atom H onalkanes with functional groups  OR. Check out some of these alkanes acyloxycompounds.

A table of some compounds acyloxy alkanes

The Name Of The Structure Of Molecular Formula
Metoksimetana (dimethyl ether) CH3  O  CH3 C2H6O
Etoksietana (diethyl ether)  O  C2H5 C2H5 C4H10O
Metoksietana (ethyl methyl ether) CH3  O  CH3 C3H8O
The molecular formula of the compound  compound above, if n is the number of atoms C, then a general formula of acyloxy alkanes is expressed as:

CnH2n + 2O

The structure of acyloxy alkanes can also be seen as an atom O flanked by twoalkyl groups, the R and R ', which can be the same or different. Therefore, the above formula can be written as:

R  O  R '

R and R ' are alkyl groups which can be the same or different

Based on R and R ', acyloxy alkanes can be classified into:

Acyloxy single/simple alkanes, namely acyloxy alkanes with two alkyl groups aresymmetrical, i.e. R = R '. Examples are dimethyl acyloxy alkenes (CH3  O  CH3).
Acyloxy alkane compounds, namely acyloxy alkanes with two alkyl groups areasymmetrical, R  R '. An example is ethyl methyl acyloxy alkenes (CH3  O C2H5).
NOMENCLATURE ETHER

The naming of compound ethers can be done in two ways, namely by namingthe alkyl ether (trivial, or common name) and the acyloxy alkanes (IUPAC).

TRIVIAL NOMENCLATURE

On the name of the ether are trivial, the second alkyl group name is mentionedfirst, then followed the words of ether. When a cluster of different alkilnya hence the name alkyl sorted alphabetically, but when a second cluster of the samealkilnya then diberiawalan on. For example, consider the following struktu.

Ch3  O  dimethyl ether CH3 (R = R ')

Ch3  CH2  CH3 O  ethyl methyl ether (R  R ')

C2h5  O , ethyl propyl ether (R  R ')

IUPAC NOMENCLATURE

In the IUPAC nomenclature, when the cluster alkilnya has the number of chains of C is not the same then alkyl acting as acyloxy (R  O) with the number of alkylC is smaller, then followed the chain's name alkananya (R). When described, howthe naming is as follows:

ether-Ether IUPAC nomenclature

Ch3  O  CH3 methoxy group methane

Ch3  CH2  CH3 O  p ethane

Ch3  CH2  CH2  CH2  O  CH3 etoksi propane

PROPERTIES OF ETHER

There are two properties of ether to be covered, i.e. the physical properties ofthe chemical properties of ethers and ether (ether reaction).

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHER

Acyloxy alkanes is a colourless liquid that is easily vaporized and burned, andsmelled delicious but has anesthetized. The boiling point of alkanes Acyloxyrealtif lower if compared to the cluster function, alcohol isomers, which areequivalent (have the same number of atoms C) because the alcohol there arehydrogen bonds, whereas in Acyloxy alkanes do not (the existence of the style of London, which is weaker than hydrogen bonding).

THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHERS/REACTIONS OF ETHERS

Acyloxy alkanes less reactive because of the cluster of functionality which is lessreactive. Here are a few reactions: ethers

a. reaction with PCl5

the reaction of alkanes with acyloxy penta phosphorus chloride will producealkyl halides. Reaction with PCl5 can be used to distinguish alcoholic withacyloxy alkanes. On alcohol produced HCl yangd apat Redden litmus blue,whereas acyloxy alkanes do not.

R  O  R ' + PCl5  RCl + POCl3 + R'Cl

Example:

Ch3  O  C2H5 + PCl5  CH3Cl + C2H5Cl + PCl3

b. reactions with an acid halide (HX)

Ethers can react with asamhalida (primarily HI) produces alkyl halides andalcohols.

R  O  R ' + HI → R  OH + R '-I

If excess halidanya acid will be produced, 2 molecules of alkyl halides.

Example:

C2h5  O  CH3 C2H5 + HI   OH + CH3  I

Ch3  O  C2H5 + 2HI  CH3 C2H5 + – I  I + H2O

THE MAKING OF THE ETHER

Acyloxy symmetrical alkane made from dehydrated alcohol using concentrated sulfuric acid at temperatures 140oC.
2R  OH → R  O  R + H2O (H2SO4, 140oC)

Example:

2CH3  OH  CH3  O  CH3 + H2O (H2SO4, 140oC)

Na – the reaction of alkyl halides with alkoxide (the Williamson synthesis)
R  ONa + R'Cl → R  O  R ' + Na

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